這是最近看到的一篇文章,一樣還是從Mary Greer的網頁連結到的。我覺得很可以釐清一些塔羅牌有關的一些歷史問題,因此順手譯了出來。放上中英對照,若有錯誤,還請告知,以便修改。

 

Topic: The time and place of the origin of the tarot

Inaccurate: The tarot comes from Egypt; India; China; Fez, Morocco; the Sufis; the Cathars; Jewish Kabbalists or Moses; or the origin of the tarot is unknown.

 

Current Historical Understanding: The tarot originated in northern Italy early in the 15th century (1420-1440). There is no evidence for it originating in any other time or place. The earliest extant cards are lavish hand-painted decks from the courts of the nobility.

 

主題:塔羅牌起源的時間與地點

 

錯誤:塔羅牌來自埃及、印度、中國、土耳其、摩洛哥、蘇菲、猶太卡巴拉、摩西。或說塔羅牌的起源未知。

 

正確的歷史了解:塔羅牌的起源,是在15世紀(1420-1440)的北義大利。無任何證據可以證明他的起源來自其他時間或地點。現存最早的牌是來自貴族的手繪牌卡。

 

Topic: The origin of the word "tarot"

Inaccurate: The word is Egyptian, Hebrew, or Latin; it is an anagram; it holds the key to the mystery of the cards.

Current Historical Understanding: The earliest names for the tarot are all Italian. Originally the cards were called carte da trionfi (cards of the triumphs). Around 1530 (about 100 years after the origin of the cards), the word tarocchi (singular tarocco) begins to be used to distinguish them from a new game of triumphs or trumps then being played with ordinary playing cards. The etymology of this new word is not known. The German form is tarock, the French form is tarot. Even if the etymology were known, it would probably not tell us much about the idea behind the cards, since it only came into use 100 years after they first appeared.

主題:「tarot」這個字的來源

 

錯誤:這個字是埃及文、希伯來文或拉丁文。這個字是個回文構詞法。這個字具有進入牌卡神秘的關鍵。

 

目前的歷史了解:塔羅牌最早的名字,全部都是義大利文。一開始,這些牌叫做carte da trionfi (cards of the triumphs)。大約在1530年左右,(大約是第一副牌出現後一百年)為了將塔羅牌與其他稱做triumphs trumps的紙牌遊戲區分開來,因此,開始使用tarocchi (單數 tarocco)這個字。我們不知道這個字的辭源,德文形式是tarock法文是tarot就算我們知道辭源,恐怕也無法告訴我們更多有關這些牌是如何產生的背景資料。因為從這些牌卡出現到使用也才一百年而已。

 

Topic: The cultural source of the tarot symbols

Inaccurate: The symbolism of the trumps comes from Egypt (or India, or other exotic locale).

Current Historical Understanding: The symbolism of the trumps is drawn from the culture of Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Most tarot subjects are distinctive to European Christendom. Illustrations virtually identical to each of the tarot subjects can be found in European art, and such precise analogs are not found in other cultures.

主題:塔羅牌象徵的文化來源

 

錯誤:大牌的象徵系統來自埃及(或印度、或其他異國)。

目前歷史上的了解:大牌的象徵系統是來自中世紀與文化復興時期的歐洲文化。大部分的塔羅牌主題都很有歐洲基督教國家的特色,幾乎可以在歐洲藝術中,找到很多與塔羅牌主題相同的圖畫,而我們並沒有在其他文化中找到這樣的類似性。

 

Topic: The gypsies and tarot

Inaccurate: The gypsies brought the tarot to Europe and spread its use.

Current Historical Understanding: This idea was popularized in the 19th century by several writers, notably Vaillant and Papus, without any basis in historical fact. There is no evidence that the Rom (gypsies) used tarot cards until the 20th century. Most of their fortune-telling was through palmistry and later through the use of ordinary playing cards.

主題:吉普賽人與塔羅牌

 

錯誤:吉普賽人將塔羅牌帶到歐洲,並且擴大其用法。

 

目前歷史上的了解:這個想法在19世紀時,非常受歡迎,有好幾位作家都提到,特別是Vaillant and Papus,但是這個想法並沒有任何歷史上的事實基礎。並沒有任何證據,可以證明在20世紀以前,流浪者(吉普賽人)曾使用塔羅牌。他們大部分算命是看手相,後來則大部分使用普通的撲克牌。

 

Topic: Relationship between tarot and ordinary playing cards

Inaccurate: The 52-card deck evolved from the tarot, leaving the Joker as the only remnant of the major arcana.

Current Historical Understanding: Playing cards came to Europe from Islam, probably via Muslim Spain, about 50 years before the development of tarot. They appeared quite suddenly in many different European cities between 1375 and 1378. European playing cards were an adaptation of the Islamic Mamluk cards. These early cards had suits of cups, swords, coins, and polo sticks (seen by Europeans as staves), and courts consisting of a king and two male underlings. The tarot adds the Fool, the trumps, and a set of queens to this system. Some time before 1480, the French introduced cards with the now-familiar suits of hearts, clubs, spades, and diamonds. The earlier suits are still preserved in the tarot and in Italian and Spanish playing cards.

The Joker originated in the United States around 1857, used as a wild card in poker and as the highest trump in Euchre. It appears to have no direct relationship to the Fool of the tarot.

主題:塔羅牌與一般撲克牌的關係

 

錯誤52張撲克牌是來自於塔羅牌,鬼牌則是大阿卡納的殘留。

 

目前歷史上的了解:撲克牌大概是經由西班牙的穆斯林從伊斯蘭傳到歐洲,時間大約是在塔羅牌開始發展前五十年。在13751378年時,撲克牌突然出現在很多不同的歐洲城市。歐洲的撲克牌很像伊斯蘭的Mamluk牌卡。這些早期的牌卡有四組牌:杯子、寶劍、錢幣、馬球棍(歐洲是柺杖),宮廷牌則有一張國王,兩張男性部屬。塔羅牌則在這個系統中,加上了愚人、大牌以及一組皇后。在1480年以前,法國引進的撲克牌,則是我們現在熟知的紅心、黑桃、鑽石、黑梅。這些較早的撲克牌組,還保存在塔羅牌中以及義大利與西班牙的撲克牌裡。

 

Joker這張牌的起源,是在1857年的美國,在撲克牌裡面當作鬼牌,或是在尤克牌戲中做最大的王牌。這張牌的出現,與塔羅牌中的愚人沒有直接關係。

 

Topic: The "Charles VI" or "Gringonneur" tarot cards

Inaccurate: The tarot was invented to amuse Charles VI of France in 1392, as evidenced by a deck by Gringonneur in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris.

Current Historical Understanding: It is recorded that in 1392, Jacquemin Gringonneur was paid to paint three decks of cards for Charles VI. These were probably playing cards, not tarot. The deck in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France is a late-15th century hand-painted deck of the Northern Italian type (probably from Venice or Ferrara).

主題:「查理六世」與"Gringonneur"塔羅牌

 

錯誤:在1392年,發明塔羅牌是為了要取悅法國的查理六世。巴黎的the Bibliothèque Nationale de France中所保存的Gringonneur塔羅牌就是此事的證據。

 

目前歷史上的了解:此紀錄記載於1392年,有人付錢請Jacquemin Gringonneur畫了三副牌給查理六世。但是,那只是一般的遊戲牌卡,並不是塔羅牌。保存在the Bibliothèque Nationale de France的那副塔羅牌,是15世紀末北義大利形式的手繪牌卡 (大概來自威尼斯或費拉洛)。

 

Topic: Tarot and the Hebrew Alphabet

Inaccurate: Eliphas Lévi (c. 1850) was the first to ascribe Hebrew letters to the tarot.

Current Historical Understanding: The Comte de Mellet, whose short article on the tarot was published in Court de Gébelin's Le Monde Primitif (1781), was the first to write of a connection between the Hebrew letters and the cards. Court de Gébelin also mentioned the idea in passing in his own essay.

主題:塔羅牌與希伯來字母

 

錯誤:第一個把希伯來字母跟塔羅牌連在一起的人,是Eliphas Lévi (c. 1850)

 

目前歷史上的了解The Comte de Mellet這個人有一篇關於塔羅牌的短文,刊登在Court de Gébelin's Le Monde Primitif (1781)。這是第一個寫出希伯來字母與塔羅牌關係的人。Court de Gébelin也曾在自己的文章中談到這個想法。

 

Topic: Tarot censored by the church

Inaccurate: The Catholic and Protestant churches outlawed tarot and all who used it in an effort to stamp out either heretical teachings or a work of the Devil.

Current Historical Understanding: The Inquisition documented in considerable detail what the church regarded as evidence of heresy and the tarot is never mentioned.

Many printers made their living printing both religious cards and playing cards. Playing cards were sometimes restricted or outlawed because of their use in gambling. Tarot cards were, in fact, sometimes explicitly exempted from bans on playing cards, perhaps because of their association with the upper classes. In 1423, playing cards (tarot cards were not mentioned) were among many things thrown on the fires in Bologna by followers of Bernadino of Sienna during an attack against all studies and pastimes not focused on religion.

After the Reformation, the church did object to the cards depicting the Pope and Papess, and cardmakers substituted less controversial images.

主題:塔羅牌受到教會的審查

錯誤:天主教與新教教會宣告塔羅牌不合法,使用塔羅牌的人,都被視為是異教徒或魔鬼的工作。

目前歷史上的了解:在許多調查文件中,並沒有提到教會把塔羅牌與異端扯在一起的證據。

許多印刷廠商都同時印刷宗教牌卡與遊戲牌卡。遊戲牌卡常常會被視為不合法或受到限制,那是因為這些牌卡經常被用來作為賭博之用。但是,塔羅牌卻不在禁止之列,很可能是因為塔羅牌總是與上流社會有關。1463年,許多遊戲牌卡(未提及塔羅牌)都被Bernadino of Sienna的追隨者,在Bologna丟入火中,因為他們反對任何娛樂或研究,沒有把焦點放在宗教上。

宗教改革之後,教會反對這些描繪教皇或女教皇的牌卡,以及一些可疑的圖像。

Topic: Original use of tarot cards

Inaccurate: The tarot was originally used for divination/magic/teaching secret doctrines/etc.

Current Historical Understanding: Written records tell that the tarot was regularly used to play a card game similar to Bridge. The game was popular throughout much of Europe for centuries and is still played today, particularly in France. Early poets also used the titles of the trump cards to create flattering verses, called tarocchi appropriati, describing ladies of the court or famous personages. Although it is possible that tarot cards might also have been sometimes used for other purposes, there is no clear evidence of such use until long after the cards were invented. Records from a trial in Venice in 1589 suggest that tarot may have been associated with witchcraft (at least in the minds of the accusers) at this date, about 150 years after the appearance of the tarot. After this, there are no references connecting tarot with magic or divination until the 18th century. (See also next three questions.)

主題:塔羅牌的原始用法

錯誤:塔羅牌本來是作為占卜、魔法、教導神秘教義的工具。

目前歷史上的了解:書面上的紀錄告訴我們,塔羅牌原來的作用,是作為遊戲之用,類似於橋牌。這個遊戲在歐洲很受歡迎,歷經了好幾個世紀,到現在還有人在玩,特別是在法國。早期詩人也曾使用大牌的標題去做詩,稱為tarocchi appropriati,描寫宮廷仕女或有名的大人物。塔羅牌在某些時期,可能也用作其他用途,但是,在塔羅牌發明之後,並沒有明確的證據顯示這些用途。1589年的紀錄中,提到有人建議可以把塔羅牌運用在巫術中,這已經是塔羅牌出現150年後了。後來一直到18世紀以前,都沒有任何證據證明塔羅牌與占卜或魔法有關。

Topic: Tarot and divination

Inaccurate: Tarot was not used for divination before Etteilla and Court de Gébelin around 1781.

Current Historical Understanding: There is evidence of such use, but it is fragmentary and suggestive rather than conclusive. Tarot was used as early as the 16th century to compose poems describing personality characteristics (tarocchi appropriati). In one case (1527), the verses are presented as relating to the person's fate. There are records of divinatory meanings assigned to tarot cards in Bologna early in the 1700s. This is the first unambiguous evidence of tarot divination as it is commonly understood. However, it is known that ordinary playing cards were connected with divination as early as 1487, so it is reasonable to conjecture that tarot was also. From the 1790s with Etteilla's deck we find tarot design being modified specifically to reflect divinatory and esoteric meanings.

主題:塔羅牌與占卜

錯誤:在Etteilla and Court de Gébelin之前,塔羅牌不是用來占卜的,那時大約是1781年,

目前歷史上的了解:確實有證據證明塔羅牌的占卜用途,但是,那些證據是零碎而不太肯定的。在16世紀時,塔羅牌用來寫詩,描述人的特性(tarocchi appropriati)。在1527年有一個案例,是那首詩寫到了有關人的命運。塔羅牌被賦予占卜意義的最早紀錄,是在Bologna,約1700年的時候。這是第一個清楚證據,證明塔羅牌占卜是一般性的了解。不過,一般的牌卡最早在1487年左右,就與占卜產生關係,因此,我們也可以合理推測塔羅牌也是一樣。自從1790年開始,Etteilla's的牌組使我們發現,塔羅牌的設計已經被修正為特別可以反映占卜與神秘學涵義。

Topic: Occult philosophy and the original design of the tarot

Inaccurate: There are no hermetic, heretical, or kabbalistic characteristics in the original tarot.

Current Historical Understanding: This topic is still open. The early Italian Renaissance, which gave birth to the tarot, was a time of great intellectual diversity and activity. Hermeticism, astrology, Neoplatonism, Pythagorean philosophy with roots in Alexandrian Egypt, and heterodox Christian thought all thrived. Any or all of these may have left their mark on the design of the tarot. Although it should be remembered that all of the symbolism of the tarot has close analogs in the conventional Christian culture of the time, many scholars today believe that these philosophies, which are foundations of occultism, were important in the design of the tarot.

主題:神秘學與塔羅牌的原始設計

錯誤:在原始的塔羅牌裡面,並沒有煉金術、異教或卡巴拉的特色。

目前歷史上的了解:此主題還在討論中。早期義大利文藝復興時期,產生了塔羅牌,那個時期有很多偉大而不同的智能活動。根源於亞歷山大埃及的煉金術、占星術、新柏拉圖哲學、畢達哥拉斯哲學,以及非正統基督教思想都非常興盛。這些思想很可能都遺留了一些他們的標誌在塔羅牌的設計中。不過,我們必須記住,所有這些塔羅牌的象徵,都與那個時候大家信仰的基督教文化,有很接近的相似性。今日,很多學者相信這些以神秘學為基礎的哲學,在塔羅牌的設計中是很重要的。

Topic: Tarot and the western esoteric tradition

Inaccurate: The tarot has always been a pillar of the western esoteric tradition.

Current Historical Understanding: The first occult writers to discuss the tarot were Court de Gébelin and the Comte de Mellet in 1781. For the first 350 years of its history, the tarot was not mentioned in any of the many books on occult or magical philosophy. Following 1781, occult interest in tarot blossomed and the tarot then became an integral part of occult philosophy.

 主題:塔羅與西方神秘傳統

錯誤:塔羅牌一直是西方神秘傳統的重要支柱。

目前歷史上的了解:第一個討論塔羅牌的神秘學作家是1781年時的Court de Gébelin 以及 the Comte de Mellet。在西方歷史的最初350年裡,並沒有任何神秘學或魔法哲學的書提及塔羅牌。一直到1781年,神秘學開始對塔羅牌產生興趣,然後,塔羅牌就變成神秘學中不可或缺的一個部分。

Topic: Astrological, elemental, and kabbalistic correspondences

Inaccurate: The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or Eliphas Lévi, Papus, Zain, Case, etc.) knew the true astrological, elemental, and Kabbalistic correspondences to the Tarot and corrected previous errors.

Current Historical Understanding: There are many, many systems of correspondences for the tarot. None can be shown to go back to the tarot's origins, although the French tradition exemplified in the works of Eliphas Lévi predates the English tradition now familiar through the works of Waite and Crowley. Most sets of correspondences have a rationale and system that make them meaningful and useful when studied within their own tradition. Correspondences are a matter of individual choice and of intention or adherence to a school of thought rather than right or wrong.

主題:占星學的、四元素的、卡巴拉的搭配

錯誤:黃金黎明會知道真正的占星學、四元素以及卡巴拉在塔羅牌上的應用,並且糾正了先前的錯誤。

目前歷史上的理解:有很多系統可以塔配塔羅牌使用,但是,沒有任何一個可以回溯到塔羅牌的起源,雖然法國傳統舉例說Eliphas Lévi的系統,比現在大家熟知的偉特與克勞力還早出現。大部分的搭配系統,都具有基本理由與系統,可以使他們在研究他們的傳統時,使之具有意義且有用。這些配套系統的使用,在於個人的選擇與目的,或是思想學校的堅持,並沒有對或錯。

Topic: The Waite-Smith Tarot

Inaccurate: The Waite-Smith (or "Rider Waite") Tarot is the original, standard, or most authentic tarot.

Current Historical Understanding: The Waite-Smith deck was created in 1909, making it a relative newcomer in the almost-600-year history of the tarot. A. E. Waite was a prominent member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The deck owes much of its symbolism to that group and represents a departure from the earlier French tradition. The artist, Pamela Colman Smith, contributed her own vision, especially in the innovative creation of fully illustrated scenes for the minor arcana. For many years, the Waite-Smith deck was the only one readily available in the US, so it became familiar to whole generations of tarot readers. There is actually no "definitive" version of the tarot.

The well-known Celtic Cross spread, publicized by Waite as "an ancient Celtic method of divination" is also relatively recent, although it was not invented by Waite.

主題:偉特-史密斯 塔羅牌

錯誤:偉特塔羅牌是最原始、標準、可信的塔羅牌。

目前歷史上的了解:偉特塔羅牌出現於1909年,在整個600多年的塔羅牌歷史中,算是一個新來者。AE偉特在黃金黎明會中,是個佼佼者。這副牌缺少很多這個團體的象徵符號,也遠離了法國傳統。在小阿卡納牌組中,畫家Pamela Colman Smith運用了很多他獨創的想法。在美國地區,後來有很多年,偉特牌成為最受歡迎且當時可取得的牌組,因此,後來也成為整個塔羅牌占卜師世代最熟悉的塔羅牌牌組。事實上,塔羅牌並沒有一個決定性的最終版本。大家所熟知的塞爾特十字,偉特宣傳其為「一種古老的塞爾特占卜方法」,也是新近提出的,不過,並不是偉特發明的。

以上內容之資料引用自此:http://www.villarevak.org/misc/tarotl_1.html

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  • chia
  • 長了好多知識……
    突然想到 買來的偉特牌盒子
    在品名上印了 玩具...
  • 的確是玩具, 呵呵

    Jade 於 2009/08/24 08:24 回覆

  • gtea0609
  • 原來把塔羅推向占卜工具的開端
    是一首詩
    難怪書上有人說
    可以把22張大牌看作是一個人生的旅程^^
    想不到一首詩的影響
    是如此得大^^

    我想
    人類最初的占卜工具
    都是出現於隨手可得之物
    並不怎麼稀奇

    所謂心誠則靈
    也適用於祈禱和占卜吧
    不知道女神卡的發展是否
    也跟塔羅牌的發展史很類似???
  • 你說的是朵琳的女神卡嗎?
    我一直以為女神卡, 天使卡, 精靈卡, 這些都是朵琳通靈而產生的卡片,
    目前為止沒什麼發展史可說, 都是二十一世紀的產物
    不知道我說的對嗎?

    Jade 於 2009/08/24 08:23 回覆

  • gtea0609
  • 謝謝讓我大開眼界
    與增長了許多知識^^
  • 這篇寫的都是[結論], 並沒有把證據拿出來解說
    所以, 到底說的是不是對的歷史, 我也不知道, 只是有一堆名人背書就是了
    倒是若要把證據拿出來解說, 那可能就要用一本書的份量來寫才說的完了吧

    Jade 於 2009/08/24 11:31 回覆

  • gtea0609
  • 我也不知道朵琳的女神卡或精靈卡天使卡
    是怎麼產生的?? 我是因為好奇才問的^^
    我目前手邊也沒有這些卡 是靠網路占卜

    有時候占卜的結果
    很符合狀況
    有時候有點醒我
    哈 等存夠錢買來算算看
    對了
    我也抽到丹娜耶
    終於看到好奇已久的丹娜了^^
    她說
    要做一個明確的決定
    對我很受用
    因為當時我正在為俗事徬徨中^^
    我沒有要開工作坊的念頭
    目前我的基礎還不夠好^^
  • 馮略
  • 您好,這篇文可以授權轉載嗎?謝謝

    您好
    覺得這篇文非常的棒.不知道是否可以轉載?
    我會保留您的網址與您要求的訊息
    請您撥冗告知一下是否同意?
    謝謝您
  • 同意轉載
    請註明出處與作者
    謝謝

    Jade 於 2009/12/29 09:47 回覆

  • 柏彰
  • 增長知識了

    大大辛苦了...^^
    找尋那麼多的資料..還外加翻譯...>"<
    真的是讓我們增進知識了...@Q@
    大大的這個網站真棒...^.^
  • 謝謝稱讚
    你的網頁看起來也很讚喔

    Jade 於 2010/03/05 07:58 回覆